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Ditmer Trading & Consulting BV

Professional Services & Supplies

Industrial Porcelain Enameling Processes

Over time many different enameling processes have been developed to reduce enameling cost and/or
meet environmental requirements. This webpage will provide an overview of all processes & their characteristics/requirements

Enameling processes by product

Below a summary of currently used enameling processes and its generic suitability for various product groups.

Processes

Boilers

Cookers

Cookware

Sanitary ware

1 coat / 1 fire dry Yes Yes No No
1 coat / 1 fire wet Yes Yes Yes No
2 coats / 1 fire dry/dry No Yes No Yes
2 coats / 1 fire wet/dry Yes Yes No Yes
2 coats / 1 fire wet/wet No Yes No Yes
2 coats / 2 fires dry/dry Yes Yes No Yes
2 coats / 2 fires dry/wet Yes Yes No Yes
2 coats / 2 fires wet/wet Yes Yes Yes Yes
3 coats / 2 fires wet/wet/wet No No No Yes

DTC may assist you to select the most suitable enameling process for your product, production
and/or environmental requirements. Please do not hesitate to call or e-mail us.

One coat / one fire (dry) enameling process

Process short 1c/1f (d)
Typical products -
Typical color(s) White and pastel colors Dark colors
Process steps
  • Pickling & drying
  • Powder enamel application
  • Firing
  • Spray degreasing & drying
  • Powder enamel application
  • Firing
Number of process steps 3 3
Substrate requirements Decarburized enameling steel Normal enameling steel**
Pretreatment Full picking with nickel Alkaline degreasing & rinsing
Application Electrostatic dry spraying Electrostatic dry spraying
Dry Film Thickness 120 - 150 μm 90 μm
Remarks  


One coat / one fire (wet) enameling process

Process short 1c/1f (w)
Typical products -
Typical color(s) White and pastel colors Dark colors
Process steps
  • Pickling & drying
  • Wet enamel application
  • Drying
  • Firing
  • Spray degreasing & drying
  • Wet enamel application
  • Drying
  • Firing
Number of process steps 4 4
Substrate requirements Decarburized enameling steel Normal enameling steel**
Pretreatment Full picking with nickel Alkaline degreasing & rinsing
Application Electrostatic wet spraying Various wet application methods
Dry Film Thickness 120 - 150 μm 90 μm
Remarks  


Two coats / one fire (dry/dry) enameling process

Process short 2c/1f (d/d)
Typical color(s) Mainly white and a few pastel colors
Typical products Flat cooker panels & sanitary ware
Process steps
  • Spray degreasing & drying
  • Powder application
  • Powder application
  • Firing
Number of process steps 4
Substrate requirements Decarburized enameling steel**
Pretreatment Alkaline degreasing & rinsing
Application Electrostatic dry powder
Dry Film Thickness 150 - 200 μm
Remarks  


Two coats / one fire (wet/dry) enameling process

Process short 2c/1f (w/d)
Typical color(s) Mainly white and a few pastel colors
Typical products Flat cooker panels & sanitary ware
Process steps
  • Spray degreasing & drying
  • Wet enamel application
  • Drying
  • Powder application
  • Firing
Number of process steps 5
Substrate requirements Decarburized enameling steel**
Pretreatment Alkaline degreasing & rinsing
Application Electrostatic wet & dry powder
Dry Film Thickness 150 - 200 μm
Remarks  


Two coats / one fire (wet/wet) enameling process

Process short 2c/1f (w/w)
Typical color(s) White and pastel colors
Typical products Flat cooker panels & sanitary ware
Process steps
  • Spray degreasing & drying
  • Wet enamel application
  • Wet enamel application
  • Firing
Number of process steps 4
Substrate requirements Decarburized enameling steel**
Pretreatment Alkaline degreasing & rinsing
Application Electrostatic wet
Dry Film Thickness 150 - 200 μm
Remarks  


Two coats / two fire (dry/dry) enameling process

Process short 2c/2f (d/d)
Typical color(s) Mainly white and a few pastel colors
Typical products Flat cooker panels & sanitary ware
Process steps
  • Spray degreasing & drying
  • Powder application
  • Firing
  • Powder application
  • Firing
Number of process steps 5
Substrate requirements Normal enameling steel**
Pretreatment Alkaline degreasing & rinsing
Application Electrostatic dry powder
Dry Film Thickness 200 - 220 μm
Remarks  


Two coats / two fire (dry/wet) enameling process

Process short 2c/2f (d/w)
Typical color(s) White and pastel colors
Typical products Flat cooker panels & sanitary ware
Process steps
  • Spray degreasing & drying
  • Powder application
  • Firing
  • Wet enamel application
  • Drying
  • Firing
Number of process steps 6
Substrate requirements Normal enameling steel**
Pretreatment Alkaline degreasing & rinsing
Application Electrostatic dry powder plus various wet application methods
Dry Film Thickness 200 - 220 μm
Remarks  


Two coats / two fire (wet/wet) enameling process

Process short 2c/2f (w/w)
Typical color(s) White and pastel colors
Typical products Any difficult shaped object
Process steps
  • Spray degreasing & drying
  • Wet enamel application
  • Drying
  • Firing
  • Wet enamel application
  • Drying
  • Firing
Number of process steps 7
Substrate requirements Normal enameling steel**
Pretreatment Alkaline degreasing & rinsing
Application Various wet application methods
Dry Film Thickness 200 - 220 μm
Remarks 1) Pickling process may be used for rusty steel


Three coats / two fire (wet/wet/wet) enameling process

Process short 3c/2f (w/w/w)
Typical color(s) White and pastel colors
Typical products Any difficult shaped object
Process steps
  • Spray degreasing & drying
  • Wet enamel application
  • Drying
  • Wet enamel application
  • Firing
  • Wet enamel application
  • Drying
  • Firing
Number of process steps 8
Substrate requirements Normal enameling steel**
Pretreatment Alkaline degreasing & rinsing
Application Various wet application methods
Dry Film Thickness 200 - 220 μm
Remarks 1) Pickling process may be used for rusty steel

2) Modified 2c/1f w/w process with increase first pass


Related topics

enamel defects
enamel equipment
enameling plants
enamel processes
enamel standards
enamel technology


About Us

Ditmer Trading & Consulting BV is a family owned company, which was founded by Ronald Ditmer in 2007.

We are specialized in providing worldwide professional services & supplies to the porcelain (vitreous) enameling industry.

Benefit from our experience

Our Managing Director & Owner has been personally involved in 50+ industrial porcelain enameling projects since 1984, while working respectively for Ferro (Holland) BV, Smit Ovens BV, Smit Sinus Enameling BV, Nordson Corporation and/or Ditmer Trading & Consulting BV.

Company details

Ditmer Trading & Consulting BV
Palissander 141
3315MP Dordrecht
The Netherlands

Phone : +31-78-6169877
e-mail : info@ditmer.nl


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