Typical mill additions to enamels and their function

Milling Addition Function
Aerosil for set-up
Aluminium oxide matting agent and to increase heat resistance of ground coat
Aluminium hydroxide equivalent to aluminium oxide
Aluminium powder increase heat resistance in ground coat
Antimony trioxide increase adherence of ground coat
Barium chloride for set-up in cover coat
Barium carbonate for set-up in cover coat
Bentonite for set-up
Borax for set-up in ground coat
Boric acid for set-up
Cadmium oxide to stabilise Cd-Se red enamels
Clay provide bubble structure
Cupric chloride for self lustre enamel 1118
EK-1000 for continuous clean enamel
Feldspar for ground coat
Gumst increase filmstrength
Magnesium chloride for set-up cover coat
Magnesium nitrate to increase suspension and to prevent fishscales
Opacifier UV opacifier
Potash for set-up
Potassium choride for set-up cover coat
Potassium nitrate oxidizing agent for aluminium enamels
Quartz to increase firing range and matting agent
Silicic acid for set-up
Silver sand for heat resistant ground coat
Soda ash for set-up in ground coat
Sodium aluminate for set-up in cover coat
Sodium nitrite for set-up in ground coat
Sodium pyrophosphate to decrease set-up
Sodium silico fluoride for set-up cover coat
Tinoxide opacifier
Titanium dioxide opacifier
Trisodium phosphate to prevent rusting in cast iron ground coat
Urea to prevent hairlines in cover coat
Zirconite opacifier
Zircon oxide opacifier